Reproductive biology of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) under laboratory condition in Chitwan, Nepal
Gopal Bhandari1*, Resham Bahadur Thapa1, Sundar Tiwari2, Ghana Shyam Bhandari3
1Tribhuwan University, IAAS, Nepal
2Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal
3National Maize Research Programme, Nepal
J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 4: Pages: 206-209
Abstract: The experiment was conducted from 10th October, 2013 to 10th January, 2014 in Entomology Laboratory of National Maize Research Program (NMRP) Rampur,Chitwan, Nepal in order to assess the reproductive biology and developmental parameters of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) for the study of amenability of mass production in milled maize. Biological study of C. cephalonica revealed 215.58 fecundity; 76.25% egg hatchability; 71.83% pupal formation; 69.58% adult emergence; 1:1.5 male and female sex ratio; 1.33 days of pre-ovipositional periods; 7.58 days of ovipositional periods and 1.16 days of post ovipositional periods, 5.25 days of incubation periods; 29.08 days of larval duration; 8.58 days of pupal duration; 46.08 days of male developmental period; 48.75 days of female developmental periods; 12.12 days of male longevity and 8.91 days of female longevity.
Received: 24 September 2014
Accepted: 20 November 2014
Published: 10 December 2014
Tribhuwan University, IAAS, Nepal
Keywords: Corcyra cephalonica; biological study
C. cephalonica is industrialized for many of the natural enemies mass-bred in the laboratory for use in field against crop pests which are dependent on either egg or larval stages of C. cephalonica due to the simple reason that it is easier and cheaper to produce natural enemies on different stages of C. cephalonica than on their original hosts (Puneeth and Vijayan, 2013)
Mass rearing involves the production of millions of insects for control of insect pests as a support for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs (Parra et al., 2010). On mass rearing of insect on commercial scale, it is necessary to consider the simplicity of their mass production, mechanization of rearing processes and cost of production compared with that of using the target pest (Greenberg et al. 1998).
Rice meal moth, C. cephalonica has been proved to be one of the most efficient surrogate hosts for rearing a wide range of biological control agents, such as egg parasitoids Trichogramma spp., egg larval parasitoids; Chelonus blackburni (Cameron), larval parasitoids; Bracon spp., Goniozus nephantidis (Muesebeck), Apaneteles angaleti (Musebeck), insect predators; Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), Mallanda boniensis (Okamoto). Cyrtorhinus fulvus (Knight), as well as some entomopathogenic nematodes, like Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev), Neoaplectana carpocapsea (Weiser) is also reared on the larvae of C. cephalonica. Hence, the rice meal moth, C. cephalonica ranks first in the mass culturing of entomophagous insects due to its amen-ability to mass production, adaptability to varied rearing conditions and its positive influence on the progeny of the natural enemies (Kumar and Murthy, 2000).
C. cephalonica were mass cultured at 26±2º C, 70±5% RH, indoor laboratory condition at NMRP, Rampur. Biology study was conducted on the oven sterilized milled corn weighing 2.5 kilogram fortifited with 10 gram of yeast extract and 0.5 gram of streptomycin sulphate in a plastic trough that is sprinkled with about 0.5 cc (8,000 – 9,000) of Corcyra eggs per trough was strewn over the diet and the eggs were slightly covered by the stuffs with the help of sterilized brush. Newly emerged moths were used for this study when emergence of moth started, collection and catching of moth was done with the help of vacuum cleaner into a bucket-made rearing cage. Necessary stocks were taken to count the sex ratio. Identification was done on the basis of labial palpi present in the adult moth. Couple of moth were transferred to an egg laying apparatus consisting a transparent glass vials and fecundities were averaged from various replications. One hundred fresh eggs were placed on three petriplate and daily observation were taken for the hatchability, incubation period, larval formation, larval developmental period, pupal formation, pupal developmental period, adult emergence, total developmental period, longevity of males and females, pre-oviposition period.
Biological study of C. cephalonica
The results on biological parameters of C. cephalonica were found concurrent with the previous authors. Regarding the fecundity, which have been found an average of 215.58±68.11 with a range of 108 to 319 were comparable with Kamble et al. (2006), found 166 to 320 numbers of eggs per female in different diets. Similarly, Sathpathy et al. (2003) found 206.30 eggs density per gram of food. Manjunath (2013) documented 360.53 (86-586) eggs per female fed with 50% aqueous solution of honey. Mean number of 283 eggs per mated female was also recorded by Krishna and Narain (1976). Egg incubation period has been found an average of 5.25±1.42 with a range of 3 to 8 days. These data support to the present findings, i.e. concurrent to this work (Table 1).
The percentage egg hatchability of C. cephalonica has been recorded as 76% (range 59 to 93). This is comparable to that observed by other authors. Hodges (1979) observed a mean egg hatch 78%. Slightly higher hatchability was also recorded by some other authors. Allotey (1986) recorded 85% egg hatch of C. cephalonica; Pupal formation was recorded by Manjunath (2013) was 89% on bajra. This variation may be due to diet and semi-automatic rearing environment as he described. Similarly, Adult emergence was found 69.58% which was agreed with Nathan et al. (2006) who documented 70.4 on wheat and rice and 68% on sorghum.
Pre-ovipositional period was found 1-2 days with mean 1.33 days. Regarding the pre-ovipositional period, 1.35 average days with 1-2 days was docum-ented by both Manjunath (2013) and Jagadish et al. (2009). Similarly, 7.58 (6- 8) days for ovipositional periods and 1.66 (1-2) days for post ovipositional periods were found for present study. Supporting results 7.70 (6-8) days of ovipositional periods and 2.2 (1-3) days of post ovipositional periods were documented by Jagadish et al. (2009). Manjunath (2013) also reported 7.70 days of ovipositional period but 0.33 days of post ovipositional periods on Bajra.
The sex ratio of male and female (♂:♀) has been documented as 1:1.5 in the present study. This is analogous with the finding of Allotey and Azalekor (2000) 1:1 to 1:2.1 sex ratios in different diets. Alike results by Jagadish et al. (2009) revealed as male and female sex ratio1:1.51in laboratory culture and 1:1.79 godown culture (Table1).
Incubation period 5.25 (3-8) days was found near with others work as 4-7 days with average of 4.66 days by Jagadish et al. (2009). Osman et al. (1983) reported 6.2 days of incubation period in 28ºC while 5.2 in 30ºC. The larval development of C. cephalonica was recorded about 29.08±1.31 days with range of 21-37 days. Similar results were also documented by previous authors. Average larval development period 31.26 with range of 28 to 36 days was recorded by Jagadish et al. (2009). Allotey and Azalekor (2000) found 33.2 to 45.3 days depending upon the diets. Ayyar (1934) reported 45 to 56 days; Kamble et al. (2006) found 41.4 to 56.3 days; 21 to 41 days (Atwal and Dhaliwal, 2002). Mbata (1979) documented 34.1 days at 70% RH and 43.3 days at 50% RH. Hayashi et al. (2004) found lesser duration, i.e. 26-27 days at 30-32ºC (Table 2).
In case of pupal developmental period, it has been recorded as 8.58 days with the range of 7 to 13 days. The figure is concurrent with Rao (1954) who recorded 6 to 11 days with mean of 9.6 days. Jagadish et al. (2009) also revealed slightly higher 13.06 mean pupal developmental days in foxtail millet. Whereas 11 days documented by Atwal and Dhaliwal (2002). The slightly different results may be due to diet composition and uncontrolled rearing environment.
Total developmental period of C. cephalonica has been seen different on male and female. The mean male development period was 46.08 while for female is 48.75. Previous authors like Etman et al. (2009) documented that development of the rice moth, C. cephalonica, from first instar larvae to adults in whole wheat flour medium was 40.9 and 43.5 days for males and females, respectively. This figure is equivalent with this present work.
In case of male and female longevity, the males were found longer living then females. Among males fed with different diets, moth provided with wheat + groundnut (WG) were found longest lifespan (14.08 days) and shortest 12.08 days on corn (C) while maximum female longevity 11.08 days was found on rice (R) and minimum female longevity 7.9 days on corn + groundnut (CG) . Jagadish et al. (2009) reported virgin male longevity 9.58 (9-12) days. Manjunath (2013) reported average 10 days of female longevity on bajra. Allotey (1986) observed that the lifespan of males and females of C. cephalonica were 13.4 and 8.5 days, respectively on groundnut. Cox et al. (1981) reported that unmated males live on the average 5 days longer than females. These all references were near to the present work.
Biological study is the means for understanding the bionomics of an insect. For proper taxonomic identification and exploitation, biological study of insect is inevitable. Reluctantly, C. cephalonica is a storange pest of many cereals, pulses, grocery prod-ucts and dried fruits; we can use this insect for mass production of many biological agents like beneficial insects as well as entomopathogenic nematodes and fungus for the management of agricultural pest. From this present investigation, rearing procedure of C. cephalonica was found amiable and the high fecundity, supercilious recovery rate of larva, pupa and adult are the good parameters which facilitate mass production of desired fauna.
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